Early research and latest advances on EK technique

Some papers on EK in early 1950s are available thanks to growing of book and issue digitization, the famous Project Ocean. Those papers are very interesting. Quite a lot of phenomena discovered in that early stage of research are still attractive up to now.
However, it seemed that research on EK had been suspended for a while. It may be because both mechanism and engineering application of EK are very complicated.

In the past decade, there were quite a lot of breakthroughs on EK technique. One among those was EKG materials, a new category of geosynthetics which provides corrosion proof electrode; another one was smart DC power supply.
Smart DC power supply is truly important and to some extent, it makes large scale application of EK possible. This is a key technique that tackles the challenge of power demand and energy consumption; and it is still evolving. This is a fruitful area to explore.

In 1950s publications, we can see some discussions on compressibility and consolidation effect after EK treatment. This is another interesting area that inspires completely new constitutive model, which may help understanding of not only consolidation issue but also mechanism of unsaturated soil.

Breakthroughs in this overlapping research area are very encouraging. Researchers on polymer, power supply, sensor, mathematics, mining are welcome to communicate and collaborate.

当堆砌文献成为流行的写作习惯

这不是什么进步。。。

巨大的创新往往是没有什么参考文献的,然而没有参考文献,你投的论文可能都无法送审,哪怕你是爱因斯坦。。。

诸如research gate这样的平台可能带来一些变数,然而整个方向会迈向何处,很难说。 此间矛盾之处在于,没有同行评审的平台,可能让论文回归论文的本质:记录、分享和交流;但是,同行评审的缺失,使得信息的可信度存疑。
peer review本身并不是问题,问题在于其他地方,如 Frank Wilczek所述。

Frank Anthony Wilczek (/ˈwɪltʃɛk/;[2] born May 15, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician and a Nobel laureate.

Could Einstein Get Published Today?

By –Frank Wilczek

The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity ——by Albert Einstein’s , 1915
Continue reading “当堆砌文献成为流行的写作习惯”

他们说你是去了月球。。。

Today’s news that Chang’e 5 landed on the moon and planning to bring a sample of lunar soil back, called to my memory of my time in Tsinghua.

As I remember this Chang’e mission started about 15 years ago, almost the same time that I started in Tsinghua. If you are not a soil mechanics expert, you may not be able to imagine how this mission could be linked to soil mechanics. Actually, at the very beginning of the Chang’e mission, we were involved. The first task was to estimate the response of soil to the reentry capsule when it landed as planned somewhere in Inner Mongolia. (The planned landing spot for Chang’e 5 this time is still in Inner Mongolia.) The second task was to build a test area in Beijing, modelling the soil in Inner Mongolia, so that some experiment could be carried out in Beijing instead of Inner Mongolia. During those time, discussion on lunar soil sampling project already began, it is about 15 years ago. Now, finally, we see this mission carried out.

To model soil that does not exist on the earth is difficult. Our focus is on the mechanical behaviours of soil so that to provide basis for design of sampling machine and lunar vehicle. Some of issues that need to be considered include low gravity (1/6 of earth), vacuum condition and dry condition. The issue of gravity is especially concerned, because it effects confining pressure so that effects the strength. And this issue effects design of some experiments . For example, when design a triaxial test, distribution of confining stress due to the size of soil sample is always neglected, but when the confining stress is very low, this kind of difference due to soil sample size may not be negligible.

Continue reading “他们说你是去了月球。。。”

Archaeological Study on Reinforced Soil for Hydraulic Engineering in Ancient China

杨柳烟含灞岸春,年年攀折为行人。
好风若借低枝便,莫遣青丝扫路尘。

李老师把文章的资料发给我的时候,我没想到翻译将花这么长的时间,这可能是迄今为止我译过最难的一篇。我从学生时代断断续续就做过各种各样的翻译,各种专业,各种内容,甚至做过一次会议的现场同声传译(这是我非常高兴能够有机会尝试的一次体验,坐在隔音的小隔间,戴着耳机,切换着麦克风的频道,非常特别的一次体验),但这篇翻译是我翻译耗时最长的一篇。

这是一篇很有意思的文章,第一次听到是在一次土工合成材料会上,李老师做了一个报告,当时在座的Fumio Tatsuoka (龍岡 文夫) 教授也非常感兴趣。
李老师的报告总是有一种不一样的风格,每次都能够把知识讲得非常有趣,又容易理解。这篇文章的切入点是良渚古城的考古、息壤以及土工合成材料加筋。
等到文章译好,然后发现这篇文章该往哪投呢,它不像一个普通的论文,理论模型,数值模拟等等,倒是很像李老师《岩坛漫话》的风格。

论文的翻译是困难的,试举几个例子:

Continue reading “Archaeological Study on Reinforced Soil for Hydraulic Engineering in Ancient China”

Join us

It is the first time that I put on a post to say “Hey! Join us, if you are interested in.”

We are doing amazing research here with incredible enthusiasm and broad interests.

There are tons of reasons that people choose to do research; it could be a hobby, or to make a living, or any reason you name it, but my favourite reason is always that you love it. If you love your job, then you will do it with passion and happiness. 996 is never a problem only if you love it. (Well, it doesn’t mean 996 in our team…I never advocate that. See the photo, people played badminton; and we should do it more later on.)

My interests include (but not limited to)

1. Impact of electricity on clay minerals

By applying electric voltage on clay minerals, we look at the variation of its mineral structure and engineering behaviours. This could be a scientific research on clay mineral level (chemical & micro level); it could also be linked to potential engineering application in the area of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering.

2. Soil remediation and ground water treatment

This is a research area on removal of pollutants from contaminated soil or protection of ground water. This research topic can be linked to EK technique as well. And another possibility is to use Fe-rich clay minerals as redox materials for ground water treatment.

3. Dewatering and consolidation

This topic is about removal of water from very fine-grained soil, like sludge, slurry, clay, etc. These kinds of materials have very low hydraulic conductivity, but electro-osmosis can be an effective method for dewatering and consolidation of them. We are looking at the challenges of this EO technique in large scale of application.

4. Geosynthetics

We are interested in application of geosynthetics.

1) Reinforcement, which is a very popular application for decades and lots of people from academy and industry are doing it.

2) Filtration and drainage. This topic is related to dewatering and consolidation. One of the special issues that we are especially interested in is the clogging problem of geotextiles. There are lot of things to do, include mechanism of clogging, update of manufacturing and design code, invention of novel types of geotextiles.

3) One more thing about geosynthetics, which is special for our research is EKG. This novel material presents a new category of geosynthetic and I’ve been staying in this topic for over decade.

5. Unsaturated soil, constitutive model and numerical modelling

We are carrying out this research partially also because of EK technique. When applying EK technique, it is related to unsaturated soil and suction. Therefore, we’ve been developing completely new constitutive model and trying to apply it in suction measurement, EK design and also trying to develop code for numerical modelling and software for EK design.

6. Mining, tailing, liquefaction, etc.

More researches that are related to my basic interests previously mentioned are being explored, we will see more ideas and fantastic work coming up.

So…welcome to join us…

And also, any collaboration is welcome.

Looking forward to hearing from you

Yan-feng Zhuang (zhuang@tsinghua.edu.cn)

唧唧复唧唧,我是泰沙基

该贴部分引自知乎(英文部分另有出处,分别见下文链接)
Terzaghi文稿 | 土力学—工程科学的新篇章

“Soil Mechanics arrived at the borderline between science and art. I use the term “art” to indicate mental processes leading to satisfactory results without the assistance of step-for-step logical reasoning…To acquire competence in the field of earthwork engineering one must live with the soil. One must love it and observe its performance not only in the laboratory but also in the field, to become familiar with those of its manifold properties that are not disclosed by boring records…”

Karl-Terzaghi-The-Engineer-as-Artist

↓↓↓

Continue reading “唧唧复唧唧,我是泰沙基”

An interesting historical paper on electro-osmosis

I believe that most information is somewhere on the internet; the question is if you can find it. This is part of a paper about the history of electro-osmosis, which was digitized by google.
In ancient time, scientific discovery was communicated within scientists via correspondence, which is good, but rather impossible now. The latest news about coronavirus… Are those … working for helping people or just for publishing papers?

Porrett

汪闻韶与电渗

在对土中电渗问题的研究中,他澄清了电渗对饱和土力学性状的影响;提出了电渗和水力渗透混合流公式;解释了电渗加固软土的机理,说明了电渗在土力学中的应用:

1)是利用电渗对孔隙水动力学性的影响,在适当的布置下,使土体稳定性暂时获得加强。2)是利用电渗排水,降低土中含水量。3)是利用电渗促进土中束缚水移动的作用,促进地基软粘土层的固结。4)是利用直流电在土中所引起的离子交换和新化合物形成与胶积等物理化学作用,增进土的强度,减少土的塑性、干缩性。5)是利用电渗作用在土中灌注化学溶液以改进土的工程性质。六是利用连续间歇的电场作用,减少土壤侧面的阻力,可用于打桩、拔桩等工程。

汪闻韶的《直流电在土中作用及其对土的物理力学性的影响》论文获得中国科学院科学奖金三等奖。

汪闻韶_献身水利__情深似海_彭小东

Continue reading “汪闻韶与电渗”