这种话大概也就是得诺贝尔之后才有资格讲

很多观点,甚至做法,在真正的科学家中是有共识的;但是,并不是每个人都有资格去那么总结。

回想我自己的第一个模型,也是在等待一位朋友的间歇,在门外反复踱步的时候想出来的。当然,并不是那一刻,短短时间的思考之功,而是已经做了很长时间的研究了,那一刻突然想通了而已。这种体验,每个学者大概都会有。

” 在孩提时代,每个人都拥有着许多种可能性。你既可能成为职业棒球选手,也可能成为歌剧演唱家。但是,到了二十岁左右,我们就知道了自己的局限,就会因种种原因而将各种可能性自行消去,同时也会追问自己到底想做什么。无论是谁,都要过这一关。此时,你只能严肃认真地对各种可能性加以权衡,选择自己想做的事、擅长做的事。”
这一段,正和我前几天写专业选择时所想到的一样,实际上越往后,知识、经验越多,但是可能性越少,我们没有办法进入所有领域,所以,年轻时的选择非常重要。另外,我们无法成为所有领域的专家,但我们在精进一门的同时,完全可以涉猎尽可能多的领域,这能保持科研生涯的idea永不枯竭。而且,当你写完相对论的时候玩玩小提琴,画完鸡蛋之后画画人体解剖图,这不也蛮好吗?

日本医学家,2018年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖获得者本庶佑
本庶佑:真正一流的工作往往没有在顶级刊物上发表
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土木工程

现在的网络和以前很不一样了,以前写什么,对不对,大家回帖讨论一下就算了,现在任何一个观点都可能不知何时被无限放大,所以像以前那样的写作氛围没有了,想写点什么都很犹豫。今年听说一些传统行业的专业不是很受欢迎,当时就想写点,可也一直没写。

选择专业,在刚高考完的那个年纪,最重要的考量是什么?应该是多大程度上所学的能够参于到未来几十年的重要领域的进展中去。从这个角度,行业艰不艰苦,就业情况,有时不一定是第一考量。

人类知识的不断积累,和个体生命长度的有限,使得人类文明的传承不得不使用分工合作的办法,于是才有了分专业,每个人传承发展一部分知识。这种情况下,选了专业意味着与很大一部分其它领域的知识擦肩而过了,确实应该好好选择。

其它的专业不知道,就岩土来说,其实是有机会参于到未来的重要领域的。人离不开大地,哪怕上了天,也要寻找另一片土地落脚🦶。去年登月取样成功时就写过一篇,当时英文写的,登月,火星,这应该是非常有未来参于感的领域了。我们研究那里的土。

Since 2005

相对于其它材料,土体是很复杂的材料,可研究的角度也多,矿物成份,环境,植物生长。。。土体的各种现象,其实不仅限于力学、打地基、盖房子。很有机会探寻新的主题,并且对赖以生存的大地的研究,也会是任一时代都不过时的题材。

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Smart DC Power Supply and Roll Polling Program

The first EKG (E-board) in China:

Zhuang, Y.F., Zou, W., Wang, Z., Tan, X., Hu, P., Hu, S., Yan, Y., Wang, Y., 2012. Electrically conductive PVD. Chinese Patent. Grant Number: ZL201210197981.4.

The first field trial using E-board in China:

Zhuang, Y.F., Huang, Y., Liu, F., Zou, W., Li, Z., 2014. Case study on hydraulic reclaimed sludge consolidation using electrokinetic geosynthetics. In: 10th International Conference on Geosynthetics. DGGT, Berlin, Germany.

After the field trial, it was found that power requirement, instead of energy consumption, is the biggest challenge for field application using electro-osmosis. And I believe this is the case for most applications using electrokinetic technique in Geo.

Zhuang, Y.F., 2015. Challenges of electro-osmotic consolidation in large scale application. In: Conference of Geosynthetics 2015. IFAI, Portland, Oregon, USA, pp. 447–449.

Therefore, I have been focusing on Smart DC Power Source and looking for a way to reduce both power requirement and energy consumption. Roll Polling Program seems to be a solution. It reduces the requirement of current intensity to 1/3; it also decreases the energy consumption to less than 1 kW⋅h/m3. Following contents are direct quote from the publication:

Zhuang, Y.F., 2021. Large scale soft ground consolidation using electrokinetic geosynthetics. Geotext. Geomembranes 49 (2021) 757–770.

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Early research and latest advances on EK technique

Some papers on EK in early 1950s are available thanks to growing of book and issue digitization, the famous Project Ocean. Those papers are very interesting. Quite a lot of phenomena discovered in that early stage of research are still attractive up to now.
However, it seemed that research on EK had been suspended for a while. It may be because both mechanism and engineering application of EK are very complicated.

In the past decade, there were quite a lot of breakthroughs on EK technique. One among those was EKG materials, a new category of geosynthetics which provides corrosion proof electrode; another one was smart DC power supply.
Smart DC power supply is truly important and to some extent, it makes large scale application of EK possible. This is a key technique that tackles the challenge of power demand and energy consumption; and it is still evolving. This is a fruitful area to explore.

In 1950s publications, we can see some discussions on compressibility and consolidation effect after EK treatment. This is another interesting area that inspires completely new constitutive model, which may help understanding of not only consolidation issue but also mechanism of unsaturated soil.

Breakthroughs in this overlapping research area are very encouraging. Researchers on polymer, power supply, sensor, mathematics, mining are welcome to communicate and collaborate.

当堆砌文献成为流行的写作习惯

这不是什么进步。。。

巨大的创新往往是没有什么参考文献的,然而没有参考文献,你投的论文可能都无法送审,哪怕你是爱因斯坦。。。

诸如research gate这样的平台可能带来一些变数,然而整个方向会迈向何处,很难说。 此间矛盾之处在于,没有同行评审的平台,可能让论文回归论文的本质:记录、分享和交流;但是,同行评审的缺失,使得信息的可信度存疑。
peer review本身并不是问题,问题在于其他地方,如 Frank Wilczek所述。

Frank Anthony Wilczek (/ˈwɪltʃɛk/;[2] born May 15, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist, mathematician and a Nobel laureate.

Could Einstein Get Published Today?

By –Frank Wilczek

The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity ——by Albert Einstein’s , 1915
Continue reading “当堆砌文献成为流行的写作习惯”

他们说你是去了月球。。。

Today’s news that Chang’e 5 landed on the moon and planning to bring a sample of lunar soil back, called to my memory of my time in Tsinghua.

As I remember this Chang’e mission started about 15 years ago, almost the same time that I started in Tsinghua. If you are not a soil mechanics expert, you may not be able to imagine how this mission could be linked to soil mechanics. Actually, at the very beginning of the Chang’e mission, we were involved. The first task was to estimate the response of soil to the reentry capsule when it landed as planned somewhere in Inner Mongolia. (The planned landing spot for Chang’e 5 this time is still in Inner Mongolia.) The second task was to build a test area in Beijing, modelling the soil in Inner Mongolia, so that some experiment could be carried out in Beijing instead of Inner Mongolia. During those time, discussion on lunar soil sampling project already began, it is about 15 years ago. Now, finally, we see this mission carried out.

To model soil that does not exist on the earth is difficult. Our focus is on the mechanical behaviours of soil so that to provide basis for design of sampling machine and lunar vehicle. Some of issues that need to be considered include low gravity (1/6 of earth), vacuum condition and dry condition. The issue of gravity is especially concerned, because it effects confining pressure so that effects the strength. And this issue effects design of some experiments . For example, when design a triaxial test, distribution of confining stress due to the size of soil sample is always neglected, but when the confining stress is very low, this kind of difference due to soil sample size may not be negligible.

Continue reading “他们说你是去了月球。。。”

Archaeological Study on Reinforced Soil for Hydraulic Engineering in Ancient China

杨柳烟含灞岸春,年年攀折为行人。
好风若借低枝便,莫遣青丝扫路尘。

李老师把文章的资料发给我的时候,我没想到翻译将花这么长的时间,这可能是迄今为止我译过最难的一篇。我从学生时代断断续续就做过各种各样的翻译,各种专业,各种内容,甚至做过一次会议的现场同声传译(这是我非常高兴能够有机会尝试的一次体验,坐在隔音的小隔间,戴着耳机,切换着麦克风的频道,非常特别的一次体验),但这篇翻译是我翻译耗时最长的一篇。

这是一篇很有意思的文章,第一次听到是在一次土工合成材料会上,李老师做了一个报告,当时在座的Fumio Tatsuoka (龍岡 文夫) 教授也非常感兴趣。
李老师的报告总是有一种不一样的风格,每次都能够把知识讲得非常有趣,又容易理解。这篇文章的切入点是良渚古城的考古、息壤以及土工合成材料加筋。
等到文章译好,然后发现这篇文章该往哪投呢,它不像一个普通的论文,理论模型,数值模拟等等,倒是很像李老师《岩坛漫话》的风格。

论文的翻译是困难的,试举几个例子:

Continue reading “Archaeological Study on Reinforced Soil for Hydraulic Engineering in Ancient China”

Join us

It is the first time that I put on a post to say “Hey! Join us, if you are interested in.”

We are doing amazing research here with incredible enthusiasm and broad interests.

There are tons of reasons that people choose to do research; it could be a hobby, or to make a living, or any reason you name it, but my favourite reason is always that you love it. If you love your job, then you will do it with passion and happiness. 996 is never a problem only if you love it. (Well, it doesn’t mean 996 in our team…I never advocate that. See the photo, people played badminton; and we should do it more later on.)

My interests include (but not limited to)

1. Impact of electricity on clay minerals

By applying electric voltage on clay minerals, we look at the variation of its mineral structure and engineering behaviours. This could be a scientific research on clay mineral level (chemical & micro level); it could also be linked to potential engineering application in the area of geotechnical and geoenvironmental engineering.

2. Soil remediation and ground water treatment

This is a research area on removal of pollutants from contaminated soil or protection of ground water. This research topic can be linked to EK technique as well. And another possibility is to use Fe-rich clay minerals as redox materials for ground water treatment.

3. Dewatering and consolidation

This topic is about removal of water from very fine-grained soil, like sludge, slurry, clay, etc. These kinds of materials have very low hydraulic conductivity, but electro-osmosis can be an effective method for dewatering and consolidation of them. We are looking at the challenges of this EO technique in large scale of application.

4. Geosynthetics

We are interested in application of geosynthetics.

1) Reinforcement, which is a very popular application for decades and lots of people from academy and industry are doing it.

2) Filtration and drainage. This topic is related to dewatering and consolidation. One of the special issues that we are especially interested in is the clogging problem of geotextiles. There are lot of things to do, include mechanism of clogging, update of manufacturing and design code, invention of novel types of geotextiles.

3) One more thing about geosynthetics, which is special for our research is EKG. This novel material presents a new category of geosynthetic and I’ve been staying in this topic for over decade.

5. Unsaturated soil, constitutive model and numerical modelling

We are carrying out this research partially also because of EK technique. When applying EK technique, it is related to unsaturated soil and suction. Therefore, we’ve been developing completely new constitutive model and trying to apply it in suction measurement, EK design and also trying to develop code for numerical modelling and software for EK design.

6. Mining, tailing, liquefaction, etc.

More researches that are related to my basic interests previously mentioned are being explored, we will see more ideas and fantastic work coming up.

So…welcome to join us…

And also, any collaboration is welcome.

Looking forward to hearing from you

Yan-feng Zhuang (zhuang@tsinghua.edu.cn)